Why Extra Virgin Olive Oil Is Best For The Keto Diet
What Is The Keto Diet?
Whether you want to lose more weight, build muscle, or simply improve your health, the keto diet is perfect for all three. For those that might not know, the ketogenic diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet (yes, you are allowed to eat bacon). What’s unusual for newcomers, is that this unorthodox approach to dieting seems to contradict everything about our traditional understanding of nutrition. Now, in this exploratory age of health and wellness, we are a little more used to pushing the boundaries of conventional wisdom. But science is on the side of the keto diet, as over 20 studies reveal keto can actually improve health, and boost the body’s metabolism.
Why Choosing The Right Cooking Oils Is Essential For A Healthy Keto Diet
(And Why Extra Virgin Olive Oil Is The Best!)
When following a traditional keto diet, around 75 percent of your total caloric intake will come from fat, 20 percent from protein, and just 5 percent or less will come from carbs. (1). As a result of making fat your main source of calorie intake, you will need to be much more conscious of making sure you are fulfilling your nutritional requirements from other sources.
You should put focus on eating high quality and nutrient rich oils. By cooking with “good” monounsaturated fats like extra virgin olive oil, you can add a supplemental boost your daily intake.
Extra virgin olive oil, because of its low concentration of polyunsaturated fats and being unrefined – has more stability when cooking. When compared to its counterparts; the double-bonded polyunsaturated fats like nut, fish, and seed oils – extra virgin olive oil is far more stable. These other cooking fats also much more refined, and chemical processed – making them far less healthy, and less beneficial for the consumer.
The two main factors that should be taken into consideration when predicting an oil’s safety and stability at high heat, are the percentage of polyunsaturated fats (lower = better), and the extent to which the oil has been refined (less = better) (2).
Beneficial Nutrients In Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Just one tablespoon of extra virgin olive oil contains: (3)
- 119 calories
- 14 grams fat (9.8 grams of which is monounsaturated and high in oleic acid)
- Zero sugar, carbs or protein
- 8 micrograms vitamin K
- 2 milligrams vitamin E
Extra Virgin Olive Oil Contains Anti-inflammatory Properties
The high content of antioxidants is also part of what makes extra virgin olive oil stand out. Oleocanthal and oleuropein are two dominant antioxidants, which are related to the anti-inflammatory properties. (4, 5).
By slowing down the process of oxidation, another element – oleic acid – reduces the amount of free radicals that cause damage to your tissue, and can slow down cell death.
Extra Virgin Olive Oil Can Help Combat Cardiovascular Disease
Extra virgin olive oil can also help prevent heart disease in numerous ways. The fats found in extra virgin olive oil help raise HDL levels (good cholesterol) in the bloodstream (6) High density lipoproteins can help wash away (and clear) arteries, by decreasing the amount of plaque buildup created by bad cholesterols or low density lipoproteins (LDL) (7). Less arterial plaque means healthier blood flow, and less stroke and heart attacks (8). With this increased and healthy blood flow through unclogged arteries, a person will be less apt to experience high blood pressure and ultimately reduce their drug and medicine intake (9).
Knowing the impacting long term health benefits that EVOO can offer, it doesn’t seem coincidental that the most frequent consumers of extra virgin olive oil, are much less susceptible to developing complications associated with heart attacks and strokes (10, 11).
Extra Virgin Olive Oil Feeds Your Brain, Too!
Since olive oil is packed full of phytonutrients and antioxidants such as flavonoids, phenols, anthocyanidins – it is believed to enhance cognitive functions. Many studies have been conducted on the effects olive oil may have on the brain, and conclusively scientists are finding that EVOO has a positive impact on mental health. In fact, people who consume higher amounts of olive oil in their diet – are 30% less likely to develop depression. It is also thought to decreases the risk for developing symptoms of dementia, as well as Alzheimer’s disease (12).
Extra Virgin Olive Oil In Comparison
-Coconut oil does raise good HDL cholesterol – however this benefit could be negated by the adverse effects of LDL, which can contribute to plaque forming in the arteries.
-The negative impacts that saturated fats (like coconut oil) have on cardiovascular health – is still disputed. However, even if there are no links found between saturated fats and cardiovascular disease, unsaturated fats (like EVOO) are very proactive in protecting the heart (13).
-Coconut oil is higher in saturated fats, while EVOO is pre-dominately monounsaturated fat – which promotes a healthy heart.
Animal Fats / Grass Fed Butter
-Butter has a good omega-3 to omega-6 fatty acid ratio.
-Grass-fed butter has nutrients, such as: Vitamin A, D, E, and K2
-But a recent study concluded that even moderate consumption of butter, significantly increases both LDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol – especially when compared with EVOO.
To Wrap Things Up…
Any diet needs a superhero – and it’s no secret that extra virgin olive oil is a superfood. Diversifying your diet and rotating between different sources of fats are extremely important to ensure all your nutritional needs are being met. Just as it’s vital to make sure you’re getting the proper amount of fat in your diet – it’s essential that those fats are coming from a nutrient rich, and high quality source.
Only olive oils with a high polyphenol content, will possess the most full nutritional benefits. As olive oils are refined, proceed, and aged – they lose more of their valuable compounds and nutritional properties. This is why extra virgin olive oil is the optimal choice – don’t settle for anything less.
Mantova makes the highest quality oils – certified USDA organic, and cold pressed. You can taste the difference – but your health will also feel the difference, as well. Be sure and visit our shop, to choose from the best cooking oils on the market.
Additional Scientific References
Terzuoli E., Giachetti A., Ziche M., Donnini S. Hydroxytyrosol, a product from olive oil, reduces colon cancer growth by enhancing epidermal growth factor receptor degradation. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2015;60:519–529. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500498.
Fayyaz S., Aydin T., Cakir A., Gasparri M.L., Benedetti Panici P., Ahmad Farooqi A. Oleuropein mediated targeting of signaling network in cancer. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 2016;16:2477–2483. doi: 10.2174/1568026616666160212123706.
Goulas V., Exarchou V., Troganis A.N., Psomiadou E., Fotsis T., Briasoulis E., Gerothanassis I.P. Phytochemicals in olive-leaf extracts and their antiproliferative activity against cancer and endothelial cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2009;53:600–608. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200800204.
Han J., Talorete T.P., Yamada P., Isoda H. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Cytotechnology. 2009;59:45–53. doi: 10.1007/s10616-009-9191-2. [PMC free article]
Hamdi H.K., Castellon R. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2005;334:769–778. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.06.161.
Sepporta M.V., Fuccelli R., Rosignoli P., Ricci G., Servili M., Morozzi G., Fabiani R. Oleuropein inhibits tumour growth and metastases dissemination in ovariectomised nude mice with MCF-7 human breast tumour xenografts. J. Funct. Foods. 2014;8:269–273. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2014.03.027.
Cárdeno A., Sánchez-Hidalgo M., Cortes-Delgado A., Alarcón de la Lastra C. Mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of unsaponifiable fraction of extra virgin olive oil on HT-29 cancer cells. Nutr. Cancer. 2013;65:908–918. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2013.806674.
Corona G., Deiana M., Incani A., Vauzour D., Dessì M.A., Spencer J.P. Inhibition of p38/CREB phosphorylation and COX-2 expression by olive oil polyphenols underlies their anti-proliferative effects. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007;362:606–611. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.08.049.
Mao W., Shi H., Chen X., Yin Y., Yang T., Ge M., Luo M., Chen D., Qian X. Anti-proliferation and migration effects of oleuropein on human A549 lung carcinoma cells. Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 2012;31:1217–1221.
Liu M., Wang J., Huang B., Chen A., Li X. Oleuropein inhibits the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells via suppression of the AKT signaling pathway. Oncol. Rep. 2016;36:2009–2016. doi: 10.3892/or.2016.4978.
Casaburi I., Puoci F., Chimento A., Sirianni R., Ruggiero C., Avena P., Pezzi V. Potential of olive oil phenols as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against cancer: A review of in vitro studies. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2013;57:71–83. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200503.
Hassan Z.K., Elamin M.H., Daghestani M.H., Omer S.A., Al-Olayan E.M., Elobeid M.A., Virk P., Mohammed O.B. Oleuropein induces anti-metastatic effects in breast cancer. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2012;13:4555–4559. doi: 10.7314/APJCP.2012.13.9.4555.
Menendez J.A., Vazquez-Martin A., Colomer R., Brunet J., Carrasco-Pancorbo A., Garcia-Villalba R., Fernandez-Gutierrez A., Segura-Carretero A. Olive oil’s bitter principle reverses acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin™) in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:80. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-80. [PMC free article]
Campolo M., di Paola R., Impellizzeri D., Crupi R., Morittu V.M., Procopio A., Perri E., Britti D., Peli A., Esposito E. Effects of a polyphenol present in olive oil, oleuropein aglycone, in a murine model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. J. Leukoc. Biol. 2013;93:277–287. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0712317.
Elamin M.H., Daghestani M.H., Omer S.A., Elobeid M.A., Virk P., Al-Olayan E.M., Hassan Z.K., Mohammed O.B., Aboussekhra A. Olive oil oleuropein has anti-breast cancer properties with higher efficiency on ER-negative cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2013;53:310–316. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.009.
Oi-Kano Y., Kawada T., Watanabe T., Koyama F., Watanabe K., Senbongi R., Iwai K. Oleuropein supplementation increases urinary noradrenaline and testicular testosterone levels and decreases plasma corticosterone level in rats fed high-protein diet. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2013;24:887–893. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.06.003.
Pasban-Aliabadi H., Esmaeili-Mahani S., Sheibani V., Abbasnejad M., Mehdizadeh A., Yaghoobi M.M. Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract is performed by its main component oleuropein. Rejuv. Res. 2013;16:134–142. doi: 10.1089/rej.2012.1384.
Hassan Z.K., Elamin M.H., Omer S.A., Daghestani M.H., Al-Olayan E.S., Elobeid M.A., Virk P. Oleuropein induces apoptosis via the p53 pathway in breast cancer cells. Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 2013;14:6739–6742. doi: 10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.11.6739.
Neves M.A., Dinis T.C., Colombo G., Sá E., Melo M.L. Combining computational and biochemical studies for a rationale on the anti-aromatase activity of natural polyphenols. ChemMedChem. 2007;2:1750–1762. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.200700149.
Kimura Y., Sumiyoshi M. Olive leaf extract and its main component oleuropein prevent chronic ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis in hairless mice. J. Nutr. 2009;139:2079–2086. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.104992.
Sherif I.O., Nakshabandi Z.M., Mohamed M.A., Sarhan O.M. Uroprotective effect of oleuropein in a rat model of hemorrhagic cystitis. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2016;74:12–17. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2016.02.012.
Fang M.Z., Chen D., Sun Y., Jin Z., Christman J.K., Yang C.S. Reversal of hypermethylation and reactivation of p16INK4a, RARβ, and MGMT genes by genistein and other isoflavones from soy. Clin. Cancer Res. 2005;11:7033–7041. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0406.
Bravo L. Polyphenols: Chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr. Rev. 1998;56:317–333. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1998.tb01670.x.
Del Rio D., Rodriguez-Mateos A., Spencer J.P., Tognolini M., Borges G., Crozier A. Dietary (poly) phenolics in human health: Structures, bioavailability, and evidence of protective effects against chronic diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2013;18:1818–1892. doi: 10.1089/ars.2012.4581. [PMC free article]
Pandey K.B., Rizvi S.I. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2009;2:270–278. doi: 10.4161/oxim.2.5.9498. [PMC free article]
Ross J.A., Kasum C.M. Dietary flavonoids: Bioavailability, metabolic effects, and safety. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 2002;22:19–34. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.22.111401.144957.
Cicerale S., Conlan X.A., Sinclair A.J., Keast R.S. Chemistry and health of olive oil phenolics. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2008;49:218–236. doi: 10.1080/10408390701856223.
Cicerale S., Lucas L., Keast R. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010;11:458–479. doi: 10.3390/ijms11020458. [PMC free article]
Boss A., Bishop K.S., Marlow G., Barnett M.P., Ferguson L.R. Evidence to support the Anti-Cancer effect of olive leaf extract and future Directions. Nutrients. 2016;8:513. doi: 10.3390/nu8080513. [PMC free article]
Ellis L.Z., Liu W., Luo Y., Okamoto M., Qu D., Dunn J.H., Fujita M. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by inhibiting inflammasome and IL-1β secretion. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2011;414:551–556. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.09.115. [PMC free article]
John C.M., Sandrasaigaran P., Tong C.K., Adam A., Ramasamy R. Immunomodulatory activity of polyphenols derived from Cassia auriculata flowers in aged rats. Cell. Immunol. 2011;271:474–479. doi:
Panickar K.S., Anderson R.A. Effect of polyphenols on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal death and brain edema in cerebral ischemia. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011;12:8181–8207. doi: 10.3390/ijms12118181. [PMC free article]
Han X., Shen T., Lou H. Dietary polyphenols and their biological significance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2007;8:950–988. doi: 10.3390/i8090950.
Gökçebağ M., Dıraman H., Özdemir D. Classification of Turkish Monocultivar (Ayvalık and Memecik cv.) Virgin Olive Oils from north and south zones of Aegean region based on their triacyglycerol profiles. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2013;90:1661–1671. doi: 10.1007/s11746-013-2308-y.
Ozkaya M.T., Ergulen E., Ulger S., Ozilbey N. Genetic and biologic characterization of some olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars grown in Turkey. J. Agric. Sci. Ankara Univ. 2004;10:231–236.
Fernández A.G., Adams M.R., Fernández-Díez M. Table Olives: Production and Processing. Springer; Berlin, Germany: 1997.
Kamm W., Dionisi F., Hischenhuber C., Engel K.-H. Authenticity assessment of fats and oils. Food Rev. Int. 2001;17:249–290. doi: 10.1081/FRI-100104702.
Kalogeropoulos N., Tsimidou M.Z. Antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils. Antioxidants. 2014;3:387–413. doi: 10.3390/antiox3020387. [PMC free article]
Fragaki G., Spyros A., Siragakis G., Salivaras E., Dais P. Detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with lampante olive oil and refined olive oil using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53:2810–2816. doi: 10.1021/jf040279t.
Grossi M., Di Lecce G., Toschi T.G., Riccò B. Fast and accurate determination of olive oil acidity by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. IEEE Sens. J. 2014;14:2947–2954. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2321323.
Luna G., Morales M., Aparicio R. Changes induced by UV radiation during virgin olive oil storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006;54:4790–4794. doi: 10.1021/jf0529262.
Angerosa F. Influence of volatile compounds on virgin olive oil quality evaluated by analytical approaches and sensor panels. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2002;104:639–660. doi: 10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/10<639::AID-EJLT639>3.0.CO;2-U.
Masella R., Varì R., D’Archivio M., di Benedetto R., Matarrese P., Malorni W., Scazzocchio B., Giovannini C. Extra virgin olive oil biophenols inhibit cell-mediated oxidation of LDL by increasing the mRNA transcription of glutathione-related enzymes. J. Nutr. 2004;134:785–791. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.4.785.
Cumaoğlu A., Ari N., Kartal M., Karasu Ç. Polyphenolic extracts from Olea europea L. protect against cytokine-induced β-cell damage through maintenance of redox homeostasis. Rejuv. Res. 2011;14:325–334. doi: 10.1089/rej.2010.1111.
Stefanska B., Karlic H., Varga F., Fabianowska-Majewska K., Haslberger A. Epigenetic mechanisms in anti-cancer actions of bioactive food components–the implications in cancer prevention. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2012;167:279–297. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02002.x. [PMC free article]
Rigacci S., Stefani M. Nutraceutical properties of olive oil polyphenols. An itinerary from cultured cells through animal models to humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016;17:843. doi: 10.3390/ijms17060843. [PMC free article]
Mijatovic S.A., Timotijevic G.S., Miljkovic D.M., Radovic J.M., Maksimovic-Ivanic D.D., Dekanski D.P., Stosic-Grujicic S.D. Multiple antimelanoma potential of dry olive leaf extract. Int. J. Cancer. 2011;128:1955–1965. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25526.
Bhatia S., Tykodi S.S., Thompson J.A. Treatment of metastatic melanoma: An overview. Oncology. 2009;23:488. [PMC free article]
Gotsis E., Anagnostis P., Mariolis A., Vlachou A., Katsiki N., Karagiannis A. Health benefits of the Mediterranean diet: An update of research over the last 5 years. Angiology. 2015;66:304–318. doi: 10.1177/0003319714532169.
Owen R., Haubner R., Würtele G., Hull W., Spiegelhalder B., Bartsch H. Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 2004;13:319–326. doi: 10.1097/01.cej.0000130221.19480.7e.
Psaltopoulou T., Kosti R.I., Haidopoulos D., Dimopoulos M., Panagiotakos D.B. Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: A systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13,800 patients and 23,340 controls in 19 observational studies. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:127. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-127. [PMC free article]
López de las Hazas M.-C., Piñol C., Macià A., Motilva M.-J. Hydroxytyrosol and the colonic metabolites derived from virgin olive oil intake induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017;65:6467–6476. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b04933.
Owen R.W., Giacosa A., Hull W.E., Haubner R., Würtele G., Spiegelhalder B., Bartsch H. Olive-oil consumption and health: The possible role of antioxidants. Lancet Oncol. 2000;1:107–112. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(00)00015-2.
Nan J., Ververis K., Bollu S., Rodd A., Swarup O., Karagiannis T. Biological effects of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: An extra view from genome-wide transcriptome analysis. Hellenic J. Nucl. Med. 2013;17:62–69.
Escrich E., Moral R., Grau L., Costa I., Solanas M. Molecular mechanisms of the effects of olive oil and other dietary lipids on cancer. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2007;51:1279–1292. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200700213.
Visioli F., Galli C., Bornet F., Mattei A., Patelli R., Galli G., Caruso D. Olive oil phenolics are dose-dependently absorbed in humans. FEBS Lett. 2000;468:159–160. doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(00)01216-3.
Jenner P., Olanow C.W. Oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Neurology. 1996;47:161S–170S. doi: 10.1212/WNL.47.6_Suppl_3.161S.
Caramia G., Gori A., Valli E., Cerretani L. Virgin olive oil in preventive medicine: From legend to epigenetics. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2012;114:375–388. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.201100164.
Tunca B., Tezcan G., Cecener G., Egeli U., Ak S., Malyer H., Tumen G., Bilir A. Olea europaea leaf extract alters microRNA expression in human glioblastoma cells. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 2012;138:1831–1844. doi: 10.1007/s00432-012-1261-8.
D’Amore S., Vacca M., Cariello M., Graziano G., D’Orazio A., Salvia R., Sasso R.C., Sabbà C., Palasciano G., Moschetta A. Genes and miRNA expression signatures in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of extra virgin olive oil. BBA-Mol. Cell Biol. Lipids. 2016;1861:1671–1680. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2016.07.003.
Scoditti E., Calabriso N., Massaro M., Pellegrino M., Storelli C., Martines G., de Caterina R., Carluccio M.A. Mediterranean diet polyphenols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis through MMP-9 and COX-2 inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells: A potentially protective mechanism in atherosclerotic vascular disease and cancer. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2012;527:81–89. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2012.05.003.
Gill C.I.R., Boyd A., McDermott E., McCann M., Servili M., Selvaggini R., Taticchi A., Esposto S., Montedoro G., McGlynn H., et al. Potential anti-cancer effects of virgin olive oil phenolson colorectal carcinogenesis models in vitro. Int. J. Cancer. 2005;117:1–7. doi: 10.1002/ijc.21083.
Hashim Y.Z.H.-Y., Worthington J., Allsopp P., Ternan N.G., Brown E.M., McCann M.J., Rowland I.R., Esposto S., Servili M., Gill C.I.R., et al. Virgin olive oil phenolics extract inhibit invasion of HT115 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Food Funct. 2014;5:1513. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00090k.
Hashim Y.Z.Y., Rowland I.R., McGlynn H., Servili M., Selvaggini R., Taticchi A., Esposto S., Montedoro G., Kaisalo L., Wähälä K., et al. Inhibitory effects of olive oil phenolics on invasion in human colon adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Int. J. Cancer. 2008;122:495–500. doi: 10.1002/ijc.23148.
Corona G., Tzounis X., Assunta Dessi M., Deiana M., Debnam E.S., Visioli F., Spencer J.P. The fate of olive oil polyphenols in the gastrointestinal tract: Implications of gastric and colonic microflora-dependent biotransformation. Free Radic. Res. 2006;40:647–658. doi: 10.1080/10715760500373000.
Youssef O., Guido F., Mokhar G., Nabil B.Y., Daoud D., Mokhtar Z. The compositional quality and volatile compounds of samples from the blend of monovarietal olive oils cultivated in Tunisia. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2011;46:678–686. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02549.x.
Kesen S., Kelebek H., Selli S. Characterization of the volatile, phenolic and antioxidant properties of monovarietal olive oil obtained from cv. Halhali. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2013;90:1685–1696. doi: 10.1007/s11746-013-2327-8.
Šarolić M., Gugić M., Friganović E., Tuberoso C.I.G., Jerković I. Phytochemicals and other characteristics of Croatian monovarietal extra virgin olive oils from Oblica, Lastovka and Levantinka varieties. Molecules. 2015;20:4395–4409. doi: 10.3390/molecules20034395. [PMC free article]
Lynch B., Rozema A. Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between Us and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. United States International Trade Commission; Washington, DC, USA: 2013.
Types of Olive Oil. [(accesed on 26 February 2018]; Available online: http://www.nuproas.se/nuproas/olive/types-of-olive-oil/
Boskou D. Olive Oil: Minorconstituents and Health. CRC Press; Boca Raton, FL, USA: 2009. Other important minor constituents; pp. 45–54.
Luchetti F. Importance and future of olive oil in the world market—An introduction to olive oil. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2002;104:559–563. doi: 10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/10<559::AID-EJLT559>3.0.CO;2-Q.
Ramirez-Tortosa M.C., Granados S., Quiles J.L. Chemical composition, types and characteristics of olive oil. Olive Oil Health. 2006:45–61. doi: 10.1079/9781845930684.0045. [Google
Tuck K.L., Hayball P.J. Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: Metabolism and health effects. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2002;13:636–644. doi: 10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00229-2.
Naczk M., Shahidi F. Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. J. Chromatogr. A. 2004;1054:95–111. doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(04)01409-8.
Litridou M., Linssen J., Schols H., Bergmans M., Posthumus M., Tsimidou M., Boskou D. Phenolic compounds in virgin olive oils: Fractionation by solid phase extraction and antioxidant activity assessment. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1997;74:169–174. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199706)74:2<169::AID-JSFA784>3.0.CO;2-2.
Baldioli M., Servili M., Perretti G., Montedoro G. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols and phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1996;73:1589–1593. doi: 10.1007/BF02523530.
Bianco A., Coccioli F., Guiso M., Marra C. The occurrence in olive oil of a new class of phenolic compounds: Hydroxy-isochromans. Food Chem. 2002;77:405–411. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00366-1.
Boskou D., Blekas G., Tsimidou M. Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology. Volume 4 American Oil Chemists’ Society Press; Champaign, IL, USA: 2006. Olive oil composition.
Firestone D. Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products. John Wiley & Sons; Hoboken, NJ, USA: 2005. Olive oil.
Visioli F., Grande S., Bogani P., Galli C., Quiles J., Ramirez-Tortosa M., Yaqoob P. Olive Oil Health. CABI Publishing; Oxford, UK: 2006. Antioxidant properties of olive oil phenolics; pp. 109–118.
Ferreira I.C., Barros L., Soares M.E., Bastos M.L., Pereira J.A. Antioxidant activity and phenolic contents of Olea europaea L. leaves sprayed with different copper formulations. Food Chem. 2007;103:188–195. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.08.006.
Gryszczyńska A., Gryszczyńska B., Opala B. The leaves of european olive (Olea europaea L.)—Chemistry and application in medicine. Postępy Fitoterapii. 2010;11:30–37.
Samuelsson G. The blood pressure lowering factor in leaves of Olea europaea. Farmacevtisk Revy. 1951;15:229–239.
Zarzuelo A., Duarte J., Jimenez J., Gonzalez M., Utrilla M. Vasodilator effect of olive leaf. Planta Med. 1991;57:417–419. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-960138.
Susalit E., Agus N., Effendi I., Tjandrawinata R.R., Nofiarny D., Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T., Verbruggen M. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: Comparison with Captopril. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:251–258. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.016.
Fabiani R. Anti-cancer properties of olive oil secoiridoid phenols: A systematic review of in vivo studies. Food Funct. 2016;7:4145–4159. doi: 10.1039/C6FO00958A.
Malik N.S., Bradford J.M. Changes in oleuropein levels during differentiation and development of floral buds in ‘Arbequina’olives. Sci. Horticult. 2006;110:274–278. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2006.07.016.
Manna C., D’Angelo S., Migliardi V., Loffredi E., Mazzoni O., Morrica P., Galletti P., Zappia V. Protective effect of the phenolic fraction from virgin olive oils against oxidative stress in human cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002;50:6521–6526. doi: 10.1021/jf020565+.
Visioli F., Bellosta S., Galli C. Oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, enhances nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Life Sci. 1998;62:541–546. doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(97)01150-8.
Wiseman S.A., Mathot J.N., de Fouw N.J., Tijburg L.B. Dietary non-tocopherol antioxidants present in extra virgin olive oil increase the resistance of low density lipoproteins to oxidation in rabbits. Atherosclerosis. 1996;120:15–23. doi: 10.1016/0021-9150(95)05656-4.
Owen R., Giacosa A., Hull W., Haubner R., Spiegelhalder B., Bartsch H. The antioxidant/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil. Eur. J. Cancer. 2000;36:1235–1247. doi: 10.1016/S0959-8049(00)00103-9.
Tripoli E., Giammanco M., Tabacchi G., Di Majo D., Giammanco S., la Guardia M. The phenolic compounds of olive oil: Structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health. Nutr. Res. Rev. 2005;18:98–112. doi: 10.1079/NRR200495.
Bisignano G., Tomaino A., Cascio R.L., Crisafi G., Uccella N., Saija A. On the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1999;51:971–974. doi: 10.1211/0022357991773258.
Fleming H., Walter W., Etchells J. Antimicrobial properties of oleuropein and products of its hydrolysis from green olives. Appl. Microbiol. 1973;26:777–782. [PMC free article]
Federici F., Bongi G. Improved method for isolation of bacterial inhibitors from oleuropein hydrolysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1983;46:509–510. [PMC free article]
Carluccio M.A., Siculella L., Ancora M.A., Massaro M., Scoditti E., Storelli C., Visioli F., Distante A., de Caterina R. Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2003;23:622–629. doi: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000062884.69432.A0.
Edgecombe S.C., Stretch G.L., Hayball P.J. Oleuropein, an antioxidant polyphenol from olive oil, is poorly absorbed from isolated perfused rat intestine. J. Nutr. 2000;130:2996–3002. doi: 10.1093/jn/130.12.2996.
Jemai H., El Feki A., Sayadi S. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein from olive leaves in alloxan-diabetic rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009;57:8798–8804. doi: 10.1021/jf901280r.
Hao J., Shen W., Yu G., Jia H., Li X., Feng Z., Wang Y., Weber P., Wertz K., Sharman E. Hydroxytyrosol promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2010;21:634–644. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.03.012.
Soler-Rivas C., Espín J.C., Wichers H.J. Oleuropein and related compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2000;80:1013–1023. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(20000515)80:7<1013::AID-JSFA571>3.0.CO;2-C.
Benavente-Garcıa O., Castillo J., Lorente J., Ortuno A., del Rio J. Antioxidant activity of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. leaves. Food Chem. 2000;68:457–462. doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00221-6.